Marijana Vuković takes a less traveled narrative path and follows the adventures of Jesus the Menace. 

It seems unlikely that the foremost person in Christianity – Jesus – would ever appear in a Christian narrative as a child who gets up to mischief, brings harm to his peers and teachers, or generally acts in a way atypical for a child that he is expected to be. However, according to an apocryphal narrative entitled The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, he acted in such a way in his childhood and adolescence, from the age of five to twelve. Much of his relations with other people, children, and his parents, Mary and Joseph, go wrong in many versions of this text in various languages and manuscripts.

“Jesus makes the birds come alive”, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, L 58 sup. Source: in the link.

We learn from the narrative that Jesus played at the ford of a rushing stream after rain as a five-year-old boy. He gathered water into pools, making them clean, and molded sparrows out of soft clay (on a Sabbath, though), which caused an uproar among the Jews. When they complained to Jesus’ father, Joseph, Jesus quickly turned the sparrows into living creatures to help them fly away. When a Jewish child, in return, destroyed his pools, he threw a curse and killed him. On another occasion, colliding with a boy in the street, he likewise threw a curse, and the boy dropped dead. The Jewish mob again complained to Joseph, wishing to force them out of the village. As an act of revenge, Jesus blinded them all.

He was no better in school. On three attempts to get an education in this story, he was expelled at least two times. Knowing already what he was supposed to learn in school, he pretended not to know anything and kept silent. When the teachers punished him for his silence, Jesus killed them, too.

Not all of his behavior is notorious in the story. He retrieved the eyesight of those he had previously blinded. He revived from death a child who fell from a house’s roof. He helped his mother bring water from a well, sowed crops with his father, did carpentry, and helped his brother collect wood in the forest. Jesus also performed several healing miracles in this text. 
Scholars still need to determine when the original text of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas first emerged. According to the testimony of Irenaeus of Lyons (Against Heresies, 1.20.1), an episode describing Jesus and his teacher circulated, possibly independently, already in the second century. The text may have been composed between 125 and 185 CE in Asia Minor, Egypt, or Antioch. The cutting-edge scholarship inclines towards Egypt as the place of the story’s origin.

Besides the murkiness of the story’s contents, the text had an incredibly intricate transmission that would amaze even those who studied some of its parts through individual manuscripts and languages. Such a complex textual situation begs the question of what constitutes the core of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. The text’s fluidity challenged the very definition of text as a composition with a fixed beginning and end.
In the various manuscripts and the form(s) that we know of, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas occupies from four up to twenty-two manuscript folios. The text has no established beginning or end; various manuscripts have different beginnings and endings. Due to its episodic character, which is an essential characteristic of its narrative structure, the different versions of the text take episodes in and out according to their preferences and purposes. The episodes of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas are sometimes differently aligned in manuscripts. Finally, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas is occasionally copied with other texts as part of a story cycle or of another text, sometimes even without the title.

Jesus makes the birds come alive in the movie “The Young Messiah” Source: in the link.

Speaking of the titles, no manuscript or version of the text bears the title “The Infancy Gospel of Thomas,” which is established as a scholarly convention. Some scholars use other modified appellations to designate the text, such as The Childhood Deeds of Jesus, Paidika, or The Infancy Gospel of Pseudo-Thomas.

An uncertain beginning of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas in CCCC MS 288, fol. 79r *

The text’s title transformed almost from manuscript to manuscript. To illustrate it with several examples: in an eleventh-century Greek codex (Jerusalem, Library of the Greek Patriarchate, Sabaiticus 259, f. 66r), the text opens with the following lines: Τὰ παιδικὰ μεγαλεῖα τοῦ δεσπότου ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. In an eleventh-century Latin manuscript (Paris, BnF, lat. 1772, f. 88v), the Infancy Gospel of Thomas provides a different introduction: De infantia d[omi]ni n[ost]ri I[hes]u Chr[ist]i; Incipit infancia d[omi]ni n[ost]ri I[hes]u Chr[ist]i. Postqua[m] reversus est in Galilea de Egipto.

In a Latin twelfth-to-thirteenth-century manuscript (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 288, f. 79r), the Infancy Gospel of Thomas starts without a title as a continuation of the previous text. One can guess the beginning of the text only by a larger capital letter.

In a thirteenth-century Greek manuscript (Vienna, ÖNB, Theol. gr. 123, f. 192r), the Infancy Gospel of Thomas also begins without a title from the phrase μνημόνευέ μου (“remember me”), which appears in the middle of a sentence in episode 10. The text in the manuscript is incomplete and reduced to a few pages (192r-193v), covering approximately half of the episodes. Unlike in the Latin tradition, the text is not connected to the other texts around it.
In a fourteenth-century Latin manuscript (Berne, Burgerbibliothek, 271, f. 41r), the Infancy Gospel of Thomas appeared entitled Tractatus Thomae hysmaelite de operibus ihesu post regressionem eius de egypto, while a fifteenth-century Greek manuscript from Vienna (Austrian National Library, Cod. hist. gr. 91, f. 199v), opened the text with the following title: Λόγος ἰσραηλίτ[ου] φιλοσόφου εἰς τὰ παιδικὰ κεφάλεια τοῦ κ[υρίο]υ ἡμῶν Ἰ[ησο]ῦ Χ[ρίστο]υ. Κύριε ἐ[λέη]σον. 

One Old Slavonic fourteenth-century manuscript from Moscow (Russian State Historical Museum, Collection of A. I. Hludov, Cod. 162, f. 200v) started the text with the title Reading of the Childhood of Jesus Christ (Чтениѥ дѣтьства Іс[уса] Х[ристо]ва), and another, from St Petersburg (Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 13.3.17, f. 177r), opened it with the line Deeds and childhood of our Lord Jesus Christ (Дѣанїа и дѣтство Г[оспод]а наше[га] И[сус]а Х[рист]а).
Not only do the titles of this text need to be clarified. What adds to the complexity is that the Infancy Gospel of Thomas – mainly in the Latin tradition – was often integrated into a story cycle – a “family history” – called the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew. This “gospel” consisted of several originally independent texts, now constituting a sequence of events in the life of Jesus’ family, starting with Mary’s childhood (Protoevangelium of James) and proceeding with her adult years when Jesus was a two-year-old boy during their refuge in Egypt (Prologue in Egypt). The cycle commonly ended with Jesus’ childhood from the age of five to twelve (Infancy Gospel of Thomas). The sequence was followed by other episodes from the life of Mary or her parents, Joachim and Anne.

The entire cycle, specifically the Infancy Gospel of Thomas within it, would sometimes end the narrative flow abruptly in the middle of a sentence. In the Latin manuscript Paris, BnF, lat. 1772, for example, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas ends in the middle of a sentence on folio 90r after a few episodes. The layout immediately continues with another text, Augustine’s Sermons on St. Vincent.

The richness of the material evidence of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas will not stop surprising us soon. The text continues its afterlife into modern times through various media. In 2016, the movie was released according to the story, entitled The Young Messiah. Represented as a biblical drama, directed by Cyrus Nowrasteh and co-written by Betsy and Cyrus Nowrasteh, the movie is based on the novel Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt, written by Anne Rice.  

Just glancing, one notices that the movie’s plot has transformed. Jesus’ colliding with another boy who drops dead turns into a proper street fight with the same outcome. The scene of making a bird alive is simplified, spotlighting only Jesus’ miracle and omitting the audience – Jews – leaving only a few cousins to witness the miraculous event. The plot relies on one of the lesser-known textual versions, where Jesus’ family relocates from Alexandria to Nazareth, Galilee, and where his parents, Joseph and Mary, are fully aware of Jesus’ divine nature, trying to conceal it from the rest of the world.

This variety of narrative containers allows us to trace the narrative transformations from antiquity until modern times. We must still decide whether such a textual destiny was related explicitly to apocryphal texts in the Middle Ages or whether it was a broader textual phenomenon. The possible unfavorable textual treatments in the past mean so much to us today since they allow us to follow all the steps of the textual afterlife of these stories in need of constant revision. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas provides an excellent example of how such stories survive, live, and outgrow their authors’ initial ideas and intentions over centuries.

* Source: The Parker Library, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge,
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Last spring, our research programme reading group focused on translation theory and translation studies, reading our way through a rather long list of essays, articles and books. One of them was Jacques Derrida’s “Des tours de Babel” (1985), in which Derrida dwells on the problems that translation causes: the confusion of language and its changing meanings. The biblical account of the tower of Babel is used as an example or image of this confusion. Derrida’s essay is difficult to read, marked by irony and in itself rather confusing, but one important point is that God’s destruction of the tower creates the need for language to be translated, while at the same time making it impossible to be translated. And the word Babel is itself a case in point, argues Derrida: it cannot be translated, because we don’t even know if it’s a name or a noun.

When we struggled with Derrida in the spring of 2022, we didn’t know that a novel entitled Babel: An Arcane History would soon appear and become a global bestseller, drawing on similar imagery and turning translation issues into an issue of historical and political concern. Had I known, I would have put R. F. Kuang’s novel on our reading list, because it would have offered a perfect complement to our scholarly readings not only in its sophisticated treatment of language and translation issues, but also in its crafting of an alternate universe – its translation of the historical Oxford we know into a different world where language magic runs the world.

The fact that language runs and creates the world is nothing new, but in Kuang’s novel it takes on epic proportions. The setting is an alternate-reality 1830s England in the wake of the Opium wars, where the empire’s economic and colonial supremacy is driven by magical silver bars. Silver, in this storyworld, has the magic power to capture what is ‘lost in translation’ between languages. Silver bars inscribed with ‘match-pairs’ of words in different languages, with similar but not identical meaning, have a magic effect that help run various aspects of the empire, from trains to medicine. Oxford University hosts “Babel”, the Royal Institute of Translation, where students are trained to find such match-pairs and become scholars in the service of the empire. The full title of the novel –Babel: Or the Necessity of Violence: An Arcane History of the Oxford Translators’ Revolution – indicates that this set-up turns out to have serious consequences.

Needless to say, this is necessary reading for anyone who is interested in language, translation or worldmaking. I hope to get back to it in more detail as soon as I have time, but right now I just want to encourage everyone to read and enjoy!


Ingela Nilsson

Scene 1: Day, inside

After walking in the spring rain through the narrow streets of Pera, we finally reach Kiraathane – the Literature House in Istanbul. We sit around the big table in a rather cramped room, a room literally full of writers. The dark clouds of the sky reflect the conversation: faces are drawn, deep breaths are taken between the sentences, sighs mingle with each other as Sami writers explain what has been damaged: the language, the heritage, the drums, the dignity, the forests, the land! When one question is repeated, curiously and insistently: “But why? Why cannot you advocate your cause, solve the issue by relying on the well-functioning democratic framework that you are lucky enough to live in?”, the writers simply look at each other, tears in their eyes. What can be heard in that silence is the hurtful truth: Because even the most democratic people may choose to be ignorant, to violate and stay silent.

Scene 2: Night, inside

The same evening, people are mingling with wine glasses in their hands, trying to sneak a peek through the kitchen door where waiters appear with delicious and exquisite finger food on silver trays. The ballroom of the Swedish Consulate General in Istanbul is filled with people from the literary scene of Turkey, Sami writers are dressed in bright colours, answering people’s questions with warm smiles. I find myself interpreting for a Sami writer and a Kurdish publisher. He asks her what she knows about Kurdish people. She says, I know about the Halabca Massacre, feeling terrified when I heard about it. And I know that your situation here is much more brutal than ours. He sighs, says “I don’t know whether it is worse now than before. We keep tasting new versions of brutality, it’s hard to compare. I was imprisoned for seven years because I published a Kurdish novel back in the 1990s. Now I can publish, but the situation is still not better. I ask you, my fellow writer, howcome years do not change anything, how can this be possible?” She listens while I interpret with trembling words, just barely holding back the tears. We stop talking for a few seconds before we smile at each other again.

Belongings as a project

Belongings is a bilateral exchange project for Sami and Kurdish writers, a collaboration between two Literature Houses: Tjállegoahte in Jokkmokk, Sweden, and Wêjegeh Amed in Diyarbakir, Turkey. The project is funded by the Consulate General of Sweden in Istanbul, Kulturrådet, Region Norrbotten and the Sami Parliament. As the project coordinator, I find my role very inspiring, mediating between these two amazing literary ecosystems. At the centre of the project are ten writers – five Sami and five Kurdish – who were found through an open call in 2021. Four pages from their works were made available in translation and they all met at six online workshops, where the writers could get to know each other in Sami-Kurdish pairs based on their profile. The kick-off workshop was hosted by the Swedish Research Institute, where Ingela Nilsson (Uppsala University), Tolga Cora (Boğaziçi University), Onur Günay (Princeton University), and Olle Kejonen (Uppsala University) gave talks about translation and storytelling in minority contexts. This year, 2022, the Sami writers travel to Diyarbakir and the Kurdish writers to Jokkmokk. All writers attend all events and keep field journals. The project’s end product is a collectively written book, based on these field notes and published in three languages: Kurdish, Sami and English.

In reality…

In April 2022, after spending two days in Istanbul, we finally went to Diyarbakir to meet up with our fellow Kurdish writers. The Project’s interpreter, Salih – who had acted as simultaneous interpreter throughout the online workshops – was not in Wejegeh Amed when we arrived late in the evening. Accordingly, we had a shy start where no one knew how to communicate, who to interpret, or even what to talk about! After a roundtable introduction, some refreshments helped us to loosen up a bit: writers started to find their ‘other half’ from the workshops, phones got pulled out, Google translate joined us at the table and opened for friendly smiles and chats. Anyone who could took on the role of interpreter–enabler, without realizing that we were actually embarking on quite a demanding journey for the next couple of days.


Talk in the Swedish Research Institute in Istanul (Photo: AK)

The morning after we were in Wejegeh Amed for the panel sessions which were given by two of the Kurdish writers: on the city and its history and the city as a cultural scene. It was interesting to simply look at the room full of writers who had first gotten to know each other as squares on the Zoom screen, now being in the same room, being in Diyarbakir – cultural capital of Kurdish scene in Turkey! Sami writers were taking notes with such enthusiasm, reminding me of the energy of students in the first day of school. From the empires and kingdoms that had governed the city in the past, to more recent and democratic governments of the last one hundred years, they had all made such an impact on the liberties and restrictions of language and expression. After all this listening, it was then time to see the city with our own eyes through a guided tour.

Walk and talk on Diyarbakir streets (Photo: AK)

On the edge of a wall

Walking as a large group with our guide, on the ancient city walls of Diyarbakir…
Dilawer is approaching me in a whispering tone: “He tells the dry version of history, but our Sami colleagues need insights! I want to tell them about the old prison complex here for instance, could you interpret to Anne Marja?” I say yes and start facilitating this guerrilla city tour movement of Dilawer, which would in fact continue throughout the entire trip with several Sami recruits. When we reach the old cathedral of the city, Anne Marja says: “I will stick with you, Dilawer. No wonder you have written a book about the cultural roots of Kurdish idioms!” We walk and talk, through different streets, in different combinations of people.

One moment I listen to an interpreted conversation about the Kurdish spoken in the streets, mixed with Turkish, the other I hear how Samis are against building this kind of magnificent buildings. How, on the contrary, houses are burned after people died and only ash remains, in the middle of the woods. How some elderly people even start burning down the barn when they feel their time is coming! We ask and reply, talk and walk, show and point, explain and ensure… After four hours of this, we find ourselves exhausted, sitting in the courtyard of an old Diyarbakir stone house. Laughing our eyes out when we hear two people talking about the different methods of construction in these old houses – a “cultural exchange overdose”.

When we reach Wejegeh Amed in the evening for the Sami panel, everyone is tired but still eager to listen, talk, ask, learn! Salih is tired but continues to interpret between Turkish, Kurdish, English and Swedish. Quite a crowd of literature enthusiasts show up to the panel, where we hear about seven Sami languages, the consequences of the colonization of Sami land and resources, assimilation, being split between four countries… Things that the Kurdish audience certainly can relate to even before they finish the sentence. Salih’s tiredness reveals his playful personality more and more when he interprets. When someone in the audience insists, “It must be seven dialects, not languages”, Lea answers the question with the same certainty: “No, we do have seven languages.” Salih reacts to her instead of interpreting directly, “Really? I didn’t know this, what a shame that I had no idea about it!” This makes the audience break out in laughter, his “unprofessional” and sincere approach as an interpreter.

Panel in Wejegeh Amed, Diyarbakir 2 (Photo: AK)

Between meanings

When the panel is over, duties are not. The duty of telling, the duty of interpreting, the duty of reflecting on what has been heard: not only because of the interest, but also as a sign of respect for the interpreters allowing the words to reach us. When I take a short break from another intense conversation as interpreter–enabler, I encounter the people of the Swedish Consulate in a luxurious moment of being able to speak in only one language, if not my mother tongue. We talk and joke about Salih’s funny way of understanding interpretation. The Consul General says, “I think he does really well in this context. He breaks the ice by commenting and showing reactions while interpreting, it works perfectly in this cultural exchange setting! However, I could never work with such an interpreter. I need my words to be interpreted precisely, with the exact amount of elaboration; no more, no less. Because in diplomacy, interpretation can fulfil its purpose only in this way.”

Kurdish & Sami poetry night in Diyarbakir (Photo: AK)

Another day, we are on our way to Mardin. Everyone is taking the chance to watch the landscape, rural areas, villages, animals by the road. When we reach the open air museum of Dara, locals encourage us to start with the Roman cistern, but the group want to wait for the Kurdish writers to arrive. While waiting for them, someone says, “Can we cut the history part a bit short today? This place is historical, no doubt, but we couldn’t care less about Roman history! We are here, in this special place by the Mesopotamian plain, by the Syrian border! We would like to talk about cross-border communication, divided families, forced migration between the borders – you know, it’s our issues  too.”

At some point that day, I look around the bus and realize with panic that Kovan and Anne Marja are sitting in the two front seats – how will they manage? It’s too late, the bus is moving.


I hear them talking through Google and just a few minutes later, the loudest laughter. Anna comes up and asks me to interpret a question: “Did you personally suffer negative consequences from writing in Kurdish?” Dilawer replies in a calm manner. When he initiated a short story contest in the memory of a young Kurdish boy who had been killed, yes, there was an investigation. Also, he was arrested once when the police by coincidence found the idiom dictionary he had authored in his car. And yes, he was also fired from his teaching job at the university for signing a peace petition. As I am listening to him, he smiles softly and says, “Tell her I didn’t say these things to make her cry”. I turn and see Anna in tears. This time she apologizes, “Tell him that I wish I wasn’t crying, but I’m a person who cannot hide my feelings”. They both smile at each other. As we are silent for a minute, I suddenly hear the entire bus! People in groups of two or three, talking about politics, history, literature, criticism, identity, assimilation, language, all carried out through interpretation. “The nerdiest bus in the world”, I say to those around me. We laugh.

Text development workshop in Mordem, Diyarbakir (Photo: AK))

Stretching the word

Later that day, after the panel, I find a few of them talking about TikTok with dancing gestures. A Sami writer says that language activism is most efficient in the kind of places where you can engage the youth: TikTok, Snapchat, video games… A Kurdish writer talks about a video game project that she is involved in. In the meantime, one of them imitates a “famous” TikTok dance that I had no idea about. I hear joy and laughter, yet I cannot see any interpreter among them. It works anyhow, in a kind of mystical way which I believe lies in the ultimate intention of those writers to understand each other. It works, in a magical way that I never thought it would before the trip.

We spend another busy day sightseeing, visiting civic spaces in Diyarbakir. We visit the musical kindergarten that aims to preserve the mother tongue through Kurdish music, we  visit the city theatre, the language preservation institute. We have our closing text development workshop to exchange ideas as inspiration for composing the texts based on the field journals. In the evening we have a poetry evening and listen to Sami and Kurdish poems. Some presented with a sentence of explanation, some with only words and feelings. We listen to Kurdish deingbej and Sami joik on the same stage. The first moment the deingbej starts singing in Kurdish, Lis-Marie looks at me with eyes wide open: “He is joiking!”.

At the last night of the trip, the two tables are competing with each other in a singing contest. One can hear Sami and Kurdish in a random order since the tables are mixed. Then the applause. Then the dancing. Then warm hugs when saying goodbye. Interpreters are in demand at this stage: I hear my name being called randomly and frequently under the dark sky. “Can you tell her/him that this is not the end?” “Can you tell her/him I never thought I would have these amazing Sami/Kurdish friends?” “Can you tell her/him that I will follow up on what we talked about when they come to Sapmi?” 

I told it all. From one side to the other. Back with the answer. With careful consideration and in the easiest way possible. I am no interpreter though, just like many others in the group who still functioned as interpreter–enablers during this trip. I was just a person who speaks two languages fluently and happened to find myself among people who want to tell each other many, many stories, regardless of language.
(June, 2022)


Alev Karaduman

is a research-based writer and cultural consultant from Istanbul who works mostly within the area of diverse communities and identity issues.
She is currently based in Malmö and writes a column (in Turkish - about humourist human situations related to migration.

In both fictional or autobiographical/biographical writing, there are certain topics that are difficult to address. Abuse, violence, severe poverty or childhood traumas… They are certainly challenging, but also quite compelling, which explains their popularity in several genres. For instance, the Swedish film Det nya landet (‘The new land’, 2000) is a fantastic example of how migration-related vulnerabilities can be told in a humorous manner by focusing on relations with the locals.

Image: Det Nya Landet (

It is a very insightful story of a teenage boy and a middle-aged man going underground after losing hope that their asylum applications will be approved. The plot follows their journey, and even though it is very challenging to grasp all the complex feelings of hostility, anger, disappointment, hope, love, and jealousy, the film manages it flawlessly. The successful storytelling in such a film brings to my mind the value of writing traumatic experiences: journalistic storytelling is at least as complicated and also has its own obstacles when it comes to dealing with scarring experiences of the past.

Too narrow a gate, too real to relate

I have been interviewing people on issues related to migration, identity and marginalisation since 2014. The overwhelming burden of sensitive information and the responsibility of presenting these insights in a relatable manner have been a great challenge. Do you remember reading your first literary texts as a child? Empathy back then mostly worked as identifying with the characters, regardless of their position in the plot. Loving the prince meant dreaming of being one, and worshiping the superhero or the rebel meant seeing yourself as reaching goals through powers like theirs.

Empathy in a more grown-up sense came into our lives through young adult readings and gained power not by putting us in someone else’s shoes but by adapting someone’s entire being. Thanks to classics such as Anna Karenina, Crime and Punishment or Les Misérables, this new kind of empathy was intriguing and almost addictive for a young reader. However, as someone who read these texts breathlessly, I could still not feel the same commitment that I felt when reading non-fiction books representing similar emotions and vulnerabilities. Despite the literary quality of such texts, somehow knowing that this particular real-life murderer took someone’s life and that they had quite reasonable reasons for doing so was much more difficult to tolerate than reading about Raskolnikov’s reasoning, actions and subsequent anxiety. In other words, it was much more disturbing and unbearable to read about someone’s real-life suffering in a memoir rather than in a novel. Ironically, knowing that there are such evils in our real world, along with the authenticity of the plot, lend such power to the narrative that it is painful to develop empathy for the character or incident: this time, the bare reality of adapting that person’s entire being can be quite painful.

Image: ‘Raskolnikov’, illustration by Mikhail Shemyakin to Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment (1964)

Listening to people’s stories about being bullied or pushed to the edge of society based on ethnicity or class was equally painful – it was even scary to relate to. I remember leaving many interviews with a lump in my throat and a frozen gaze. And the question arose: why do I even have to relate to this? It is a one-page story in a magazine or newspaper, not a novel that people read for pleasure or education. The first answer to that question must be that being drawn into the story is necessary for reaching the best insights. Writers must relate to the traumatic experience they dive into and that is where the second answer to the same question comes in: the oral material must be put into writing so that the story is made relatable for the readers. For them, the story should offer neither the potentially repelling rough facts, nor less authenticity than it actually has. Then how should it be done? After years of struggling with this dilemma, I found my solution on a rooftop in the city Mardin.

Image: The city Mardin (

Facing a joke

I was working in Mardin in 2017 as part of the outreach team of an international refugee response NGO. Because of their cultural and linguistic capital, many of my colleagues were Syrians. The outreach team would do the initial assessment and then refer suitable individuals to the case management team. The case workers would conduct comprehensive assessments and create action plans based on each unique case so that some would be sorted within that team and some would be referred elsewhere, to psycho-social support, physical therapy or a child-friendly space, for instance.

Therefore, the whole team of fifty people were involved, due to this structure of the organisation, with the same families’ very difficult
recent past experiences in one way or another. The only easy part for me was that at least I didn’t have to write about them; this would soon change, dramatically and voluntarily.

I belonged to the minority of people who had no recent experience of being a refugee, but I started to note the chats of colleagues’ in the lunch room, in the car or during after-work beers. Contrary to the heart-breaking stories we heard during work hours, this kind of exchange of stories was based on common practices or observations and their sarcastic interpretation. For instance, a colleague who had to sleep in barns and caves during a three day-long walk to Turkey kept referring to those places whenever there was a mess in the common areas at work. She would use a sarcastic tone and make fun of the situation: “I did not walk for three days and sleep in caves with mice to see the same mess at work!”

Similar jokes were an inseparable part of daily life, so I realised that some people refuse to see themselves as victims, no matter how terrible the things they experienced. They decided to adjust their memory and its echo to their present perception, although they had experienced extreme situations as the consequences of war and forced migration. As if to be seen as ‘a victim’ or ‘unusual’ is based on willpower only, and not on actual destiny! Soon, the realisation of such a possibility of self-positioning in migration narratives encouraged me to search for humorous stories. The idea of talking to informants through comic incidents seemed not only to provide me with a solid lead as a research-based writer; this lead could also offer fresh and relatable insights to readers. The harsh situation of a vulnerable and exposed self during forced migration is not easy to place oneself in, and general audiences mostly engage with a migrant storyworld projected in national or international media – a storyworld in which migrants are powerless, victimised and demanding. In this way, refugees and migrants become people who experienced unspeakable things and their stories are not relatable for anyone who does not share that experience.

After moving on with this idea and starting to conduct the first batch of interviews in 2017, I found even more advantages of this approach, in addition to the main point of making migration narrative less epic and more relatable. I realised that humour can lift the heavy mood of the room during an interview by comforting both sides in different ways. It was refreshing for me as an interviewer discussing big traumatic events during migration, because I could acknowledge what happened but focus on some other incidents. This could create the ultimate indirect angle for me, but it could also provide the space and opportunity for both parties to grasp or ignore dramatic experiences. I could note that especially that, by the end of interviews or when the informants read the final pieces, the humour-based migration narrative was also refreshing for informants. After having written several columns with the same focus, I received similar reactions: informants tell the specific comic story with a lot of mostly sad digressions and actually really enjoy sharing that once-upon-a-time challenging experience. They find comfort and joy in telling an overall complicated and sad situation from a funny angle. In addition, when it is all over and the story is published there is another relief, this time in being able to reach out to others, who otherwise would not know about this reality.

New times, old story

For instance, an informant told a story from his childhood, knowing that the town he grew up in was demolished. Remembering the Kobane of the early 1990s made him nostalgic, of course, but it did not stop him from laughing at the childish essence of the anecdote around which I built my story. He grew up in a village near Turkey’s border with Syria and enjoyed being outside with other kids on long summer days. He told me the ache of being a teenage boy and how he and his friends did not know what to do with their sexual impulses as they grew older in that isolated town. Until one of the boys figured out that the soldiers on the border, which was the source of fear for all of their lives, had something that interested them very much: porn. He narrated how the village boys collected money and invested in a monthly magazine, how they tricked the soldier into selling them and how they shared the magazine for years. Tens of childish fights to share the pages, or finding that cooperation didn’t work or some other issue… He said, “We were just kids”, and added how he could see their vacant home, visible even today, from the Turkish side of the border.

As my column developed, I started to include migration stories not only from the Syrian-Turkish sphere, but also from other nationalities and countries. Ciwan (who is a PhD engineer in Berlin) shared the story of how English-speaking Turkish men in his circles lie about their nationality while dating. He told several stories of him or his friends lying about who they are, covering for each other, putting themselves in difficult positions by mistake or on purpose, and laughing about it afterwards.  They lie about where they live with the intention of hiding the name of migrant-populated districts, or they lie about where they come from with the intention of tackling long-experienced racism and discrimination when the truth is exposed.

Image: The column with Birgitte’s story (February 2021,

The other month, Birgitte (a university teacher in Istanbul) told me the story of how she was being objectified and found herself in similar situations over and over. Even though she was quite established with very close local friends, dating men resulted in a lot of questions about marriage and the migration regulations of Denmark. However, the focus of her story was about something else: how her local friends guided her through social norms and avoiding harassment thanks to a self-made map of safe streets to walk after midnight. Unfortunately, once she did not follow the map, which resulted in an assault. Her local friends were terribly upset when hearing about it the day after – so upset that she had to comfort them through a re-enactment of the incident in the real-life location, which ended with many laughs and loving hugs.

Old ache, new narrative

What these stories have in common is the organic interplay of friendship, foreign lands, identity, external threats, safe spaces and defence mechanisms as demonstrated in humorous narratives. Despite the fact that these types of stories are more difficult to spot, they are truly fulfilling for a journalist to track, comparatively smooth for informants to share, and hopefully more easily relatable for the audience.

A humorous angle on migration narratives may sound harsh. But as I have tried to show here, it offers the opportunity for people who experienced the trauma of being a refugee to tell others their story and still laugh at its absurd aspects – a kind of self-healing laughter. At the same time, looking at sad memories with a new set of eyes can help create a storyworld in which the audience can empathize with the storyteller.

Alev Karaduman

is a research-based writer and cultural consultant from Istanbul who works mostly within the area of diverse communities and identity issues.
She is currently based in Malmö and writes a column (in Turkish – about humourist human situations related to migration.

Uffe Holmsgaard Eriksen follows the generous saint from Anatolia, across seas and rooftops, into a narrative rabbit hole.

On 2 November 2021, the rebuilt Saint Nicholas Greek Orthodox church at Ground Zero in New York was opened. The old church was completely destroyed during the terrorist attacks on World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.


Image: Saint Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church under construction in May 2021. Photo: Jim Henderson, CC BY 4.0; Source: Wikipedia

A new choral piece was commissioned to celebrate the occasion of the opening. The world-famous Estonian composer, Arvo Pärt, composed a choral work set to a medieval Greek hymn on St Nicholas of Myra. The hymn was performed at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, on October 31 and November 1, 2021 by the choir Artefact Ensemble under the direction of the conductor Benedict Sheehan. In this way, the late antique bishop who was eventually transformed into modern-day Santa Claus, has indeed come back to town.

I will not dwell on Santa Claus and the morphology of the bishop of Myra. That story has been told several times elsewhere (see, for instance). Instead, I want to focus on the ‘long eleventh century’– the period in which St Nicholas of Myra rises from one among many saints of Asia Minor to become one of the most popular saints, elevated to the level of the Apostles.

Last year, a reading group organized within the frame of the Retracing Connections research programme studied some Byzantine hymns and Lives of saints during the Covid lockdown. We chose to translate a hymn on St Nicholas attributed to Romanos the Melodist (c. 485-560 CE). The hymn had previously only been translated into Italian, so we decided to polish the translation and publish it. The final version was made by Thomas Arentzen and myself, with the collaboration of Christian Høgel.

The translation was published in Patristica Nordica Annuaria 35, 2020 in February this year. Since today, December 6, is the feast day of St Nicholas (in the Gregorian calendar), I found it suitable to present a few observations we made when translating and commenting the hymn on St Nicholas.

The hymn is a kontakion, a lengthy liturgical song, in no less than 25 stanzas in addition to an opening prelude-stanza. Despite the name of Romanos the Melodist appearing in the manuscripts, even the first, 19th-century editor of Byzantine hymns, J. B. Pitra did not think he was the actual author.
Most likely, the hymn was written in the first half of the 10th century. It testifies to the general interest in saints in the period after the Iconoclasm. The 10th century saw the advent of the Synaxarion of Constantinople and the Menologion by Symeon Metaphrastes, both huge undertakings in creating collections of saints’ Lives according to the church calendar.

The kontakion was probably the work of a poet connected to the Stoudios monastery. Several monks, most notably Joseph the Hymnographer (ca. 816-886 CE), wrote many hymns dedicated to the saints. Joseph seems to have been responsible for the promotion and elevation of St Nicholas of Myra. According to Joseph’s Life, St Nicholas visited him when he was imprisoned in Crete. The bishop of Myra set him free from prison. Although this episode in the Life probably is a later hagiographer’s invention, it still testifies to Joseph being closely connected with St Nicholas.

This close connection is visible in the manuscript tradition: Joseph was in charge of creating the New Oktoechos, a liturgical book with hymns and prayers used in the period from Pentecost until Lent. In this book, St Nicholas is celebrated each Thursday along with the Apostles. St Nicholas had now become isapostolos: equal to an apostle. The kontakion we translated also reflects this new status of the saint in stanza 17:

You became the apostles’ truthful companion,
most esteemed one,

and dedicated yourself to their way of life,
father Nicholas, wise hierarch.


With this emphasis on the saint’s apostle-like position, it seems highly likely that the kontakion on St Nicholas emerged in an environment such as the Stoudius Monastery. However, many hymns were written in the same period to celebrate St Nicholas. No less than three more kontakia were written in his honour as well as several kanones, the other type of lengthy liturgical songs of which the monks at the Stoudios monastery produced a great many. Joseph the Hymnographer is said to have written 466 kanones, of which 385 are considered genuine.


We also find short hymns consisting of only one stanza dedicated to St Nicholas. One of these hymns, called a troparion, is sung on December 6 according to the Menaion, a book that Joseph the Hymnographer was also responsible for producing a version of. It contains hymns and prayers for each day of each month. It is this troparion that Arvo Pärt set to music to celebrate the rededication of the Saint Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church in New York. The troparion reads:


A rule of faith and a model of meekness, a teacher of abstinence hath the reality shewn thee unto thy flock; therewithal hast thou acquired: by humility – greatness, by poverty – riches; O Father hierarch Nicholas, intercede before Christ the God that our souls may be saved.

It is striking that this troparion as well as many of the hymns (including the kontakion by pseudo-Romanos) on the saint, do not at all tell the story that would later transform the bishop of Myra into Santa Claus. This is the famous story about how Nicholas secretly threw a bag of money through the window of a poor family’s house. They suffered so much that the father had chosen to send his three daughters into prostitution. This story became the basis of the gift-giving Santa Claus, a story that fits well with gift-giving consumerist Christmas.

Rather it is Nicholas, or Nikolaos (which is ‘People’s Victory’ in Greek), put forward as a humble and pious shepherd of his flock in Myra, always ready and willing to help people in danger, as one who fights against heretics, and one who supersedes many of the heroes from the Old Testament (Joseph, Moses, Elijah etc). Had it not been for the Stoudios monks’ prolific hymn writing, St Nicholas of Myra might never had risen to the fame he acquired in the long eleventh century. And had the hymnographers not emphasized his role as shepherd of his flock, always willing to help and intercede, the saint’s fate might have been like in the West, where he slowly turned into the white-bearded jolly Santa Claus in red clothes.

Image: The Estonian composer, Arvo Pärt. Photo: Eric Marinitsch Source: Arvo Pärt Centre (2011)


In the Byzantine storyworld that lives on in the Orthodox cultures of Eastern Europe, St Nicholas of Myra remains an important helper and intercessor for the faithful, someone who watches his flock and delivers them from perils. In the West, he gained fame when sailors from Italy ‘translated’ – rescued or stole – his relics from Myra to Bari in 1087. Since then he has been transformed several times, especially in the last two centuries.

As Santa Claus, he now inhabits several Western storyworlds and is accommodated to suit each culture, where his home is located in as diverse places as the North Pole, Greenland, Norway, Finland and Spain, to name but a few. In the East, he never left Myra, yet can appear anywhere when his flock needs help. This includes also New York on October 31 2021, where he was invoked by the voices of the Artefact Ensemble, singing the melodies of Arvo Pärt.